Developing and Testing an ECO-Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control System for Buses (Collaborative Project)

Project Abstract

Studies over the past decade have shown that eco-driving systems which provide speed advisories to drivers/vehicles using data received via vehicle-to-infrastructure and vehicle-to-vehicle communications can help improve traffic mobility and reduce vehicle energy and emission levels. This study extends the Eco-Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (Eco-CACC) system previously developed for light duty vehicles to heavy duty vehicles (diesel and hybrid electric buses). First, the energy consumption models for diesel and hybrid buses are discussed and the field data collected by Blacksburg Transit are used to calibrate bus models. Thereafter, the bus Eco-CACC system is developed by incorporating the vehicle dynamic model and energy consumption model for buses. The developed Eco-CACC system has manual and automated modes to control buses. The manual Eco-CACC mode was tested by participants using driving simulators at Morgan State University under various scenarios that included different types of information. In addition, the automated bus Eco-CACC system was tested using the INTEGRATION microscopic simulation software to quantify the system-wide impacts of the proposed system under various traffic demand and vehicle types. The test results demonstrated that the proposed system could improve transit operations by reducing delay and helping transit agencies save on energy costs, resulting in an improved transit level of service, increased ridership, and improved traffic mobility.

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Impacts and Outcomes

Eco-driving systems use communications with drivers to improve traffic mobility which in turn reduces energy consumption and emission levels. Such systems are successful in light duty vehicles, but this research, building on a previously developed Eco-CACC system, developed one for diesel and hybrid electric buses. The outcome also was successful, providing a way to reduce emissions and congestion caused by heavy duty vehicles.

Universities and Sponsoring Organizations Involved

Virginia Tech, Morgan State University, U.S. Department of Transportation Office of the Secretary-Research

Principal Investigators

Hesham Rakha (VT) Email:
Hao Chen (VT) Email:
Mansoureh Jeihani (MSU) Email:

Funding Sources and Amounts

USDOT: $139,999.70 (Federal), Virginia Tech: $52,500 (Match), Morgan State University: $35,606 (Match)

Completion Date

March 2020


eco driving, Eco-Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, diesel and hybrid buses, signalized intersection, driving simulator, microscopic traffic simulation